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Established since 1998

ABC Coaching and Counselling Services

Our counselling service can help you with problems of anger, anxiety and depression counselling; stress management, anger management; and couples therapy; life coaching, lifestyle counselling, and attachment relationship problems

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About your needs!

Do you need counselling, coaching or psychotherapy help – in Hebden Bridge – with your problems of daily living?  Are you stuck with a difficult problem, and don’t know how to resolve it? If so, we can help you.

Do you have problems of conflict, or communication difficulties, in your couple relationship or other relationship(s)? Or are you unhappy about your situation at home or at work?  Do you have difficulty controlling your thoughts, feelings or behaviours: your anger; anxiety; or depression?  Are you feeling overly stressed and strained; unable to speak up for yourself; or stuck in a problem of daily living.

All of these kinds of problems can be resolved, with the right kind of counselling, psychotherapy, coaching and guidance; and commitment on your part to make improvements in your life.  But if you come to see us, and then you continue to do what you have always done, then nothing will change in your relationships or your life!  (Change begins within you!)

“Counselling denotes a professional relationship between a trained counsellor and a client.  This relationship is usually person-to-person, although it may sometimes involve more than two people.  It is designed to help clients to understand and clarify their views of their life-space, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices and through resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature”. 

Burks and Steffire, 1979. Quoted in McLeod, 2003, Introduction to Counselling, page 7. (81)

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We offer counselling and advice; psychotherapy and coaching; helpful information; and self-help resources.

Our approach to helping you potentially involves a review of every aspect of your life (as appropriate), including:

# your lifestyle – which involves diet, exercise, and sleep; relaxation, and work/life balance;

# your relationships  – in the present and the past – including ‘attachment style’; ‘personality adaptations’ (to your parents and others); childhood experiences; and your ‘inner couple’ model; and:

# your communication stylepassive, aggressive, or assertive; stress factors; self-confidence and self-esteem; and couple conflict (including ‘conflict style’).

# Plus your philosophy of  life; and your approach to goal setting and problem solving.

This we call Lifestyle Counselling and Coaching.

The end result of our counselling, coaching and therapy approach is that you learn to think, feel and act more effectively, thus helping you to manage your life and your relationships more effectively, at home and in work. And you become healthier and happier, to the degree that you are able and willing to implement what you learn from us.

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Hello, and welcome!

This is the web site of Jim Byrne and Renata Taylor-Byrne. We are a well-established counselling, coaching and psychotherapy service, with lots of testimonials from satisfied customers.  (See the details on our personal pages). The service was established in 1998, by Jim; and Renata joined later, after a thirty year career in further education.

Counselling-room1001

This is our counselling/coaching space in Hebden Bridge

Dr Jim's photo# For further information about Jim Byrne,

Doctor of Counselling,

please click this link:

Dr Jim’s Counselling and Psychotherapy Division.***

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Nata-Lifestyle-coach8# Or for further information about Renata Taylor-Byrne

Psychologist, Coach-Counsellor –

please click this link:

Renata’s Lifestyle Coaching and Counselling Division***.

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Telephone counselling services

Telephone7If you live too far from Hebden Bridge – which is near Halifax, West Yorkshire – you can phone one of us,

on 44 01422 843 629,

from any part of the English-speaking world, for a telephone consultation.

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Or you can consult Jim (but not Renata) over Skype.

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Our approach to counselling explores the narratives and stories of our clients, with a view to helping them to manage their feeling-stories better: “Creating a consistent self-narrative (or personal story) that feels true to ourselves is a challenge at any stage in life.  Our stories give shape to our (unformed, fragmented), fleeting impressions of everyday life.  They bring together the past and the future into the present to provide us with structures for working towards our goals. They give us a sense of identity and, most importantly, serve to integrate the feelings of our right brain with the language of our left”.

Philippa Perry, How to Stay Sane (2012). Page 74. (-2)

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Jim and Renata comment: But we must never lose sight of the fact that the maintenance of those stories depends upon the state of our physical well-being – our body-mind – through diet, exercise, sleep, relaxation, relationship support, and environmental stressors, and so on. It is not about free-standing stories in a ‘floating head’.

Jim Byrne and Renata Taylor-Byrne, May 2019

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We are the originators of the system of counselling known as E-CENT.  The letters stand for emotive, cognitive, embodied narrative therapy; and this is the most comprehensive system of holistic counselling available today.

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What is Counselling, and how is it practiced?

by Dr Jim Byrne, Doctor of Counselling, April 2019. Posted here on 3rd July 2019

Counselling is a chance to rethink your feelings, and to re-feel your experiences; and to digest what needs to be digested, and then move on.

Resource Pack R1: What is counselling and how is it done?

by Dr Jim Byrne

28th April 2019

Introduction 

Image-1-Whats-counselling.JPGIn simple terms, counselling involves one person (the counsellor) helping another person (the client) to work through some difficult or painful emotional, behavioural or relationship problem or difficulty.  That is the form of individual counselling.

In practice there are probably almost as many definitions and descriptions of the process called ‘counselling’ as there are theorists who have written on this subject.  At one stage, the number of systems of counselling and therapy was said to be more than 400.  So narrowing down our definition to manageable proportions is going to be our major challenge.

Therefore, let us begin in a modest manner… End of extract.  For more, please click this link: What is counselling?

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Counselling, psychotherapy and coaching subjects are addressed in some of our main books, which can be viewed at the ABC Bookstore Online.***

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Counselling individuals using the E-CENT approach

Quick introduction

There is no standard or invariable structure that can be applied to all E-CENT counselling and therapy sessions.  There are several core models that we use to guide our counselling process – and they will be reviewed below – but they tend to occur in various, unpredictable patterns, depending upon the client’s narrative, and various automatic counsellor-judgements.

There are at least twenty standard principles that guide the thinking of the therapist, but not all of these is activated by any particular client, or client-problem: (See Chapter 3).  And the order in which they become relevant cannot be anticipated or pre-specified.

Furthermore, the E-CENT counsellor is guided from non-conscious levels of mind, rather than consciously working out how to respond.

So, given these facts, how can I quickly provide you with an overview of a ‘fairly typical’ individual E-CENT counselling session, as a map of the territory to be explored? The most important things to bear in mind are these:

  1. Right-brain to right-brain, non-verbal, emotive communication is probably the most potent thing that goes on in emotive-cognitive therapy: (Hill, 2015; Siegel, 2016; Rass, 2018; Forgas, 2001).
  2. We are attachment therapists first; affect regulation therapists second; and only then cognitive-behavioural-informational counsellors.
  3. We aim to build a warm relationship of attentive awareness and acceptance with the client. We aim to become a safe-harbour and a secure base.
  4. We also practice sensitive attunement to the emotional state of the client.

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What is E-CENT Counselling?

What is Emotive-Cognitive Embodied-Narrative Therapy (E-CENT)?

By Dr Jim Byrne

Copyright (c) 2009-2016, Jim Byrne

Posted here on 3rd July 2019

This was one of the first things I wrote about Emotive-Cognitive Embodied Narrative Therapy (E-CENT).  I wrote it to try to clarify how the various elements of E-CENT, which had emerged by 2009, fitted together.

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Summary

Jim.Nata.Couples.pg.jpg.w300h245 (1)In this 22 page paper, the author describes the nature of Emotive-Cognitive Embodied-Narrative Therapy (E-CENT).  He introduces some of the E-CENT models of the human mind; outlines the foundations of the basic theory of E-CENT counselling, by summarising eight of the nineteen key features, or principles, which characterise this integrative system; lists a small number of the main models that are used to structure E-CENT counselling sessions; and ends by describing the E-CENT therapist’s style.

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1. Introduction

The following quotation provides a concise flavour of the E-CENT approach to counselling and therapy… End of extract.  For more, please click this link: What is E-CENT counselling?

 

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DIY counselling for anger, anxiety and depression; anger management and couples therapy. See our range of self-help books, at the ABC Bookstore Online.***

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Continued…

Beyond that point, here is my ‘quick tutorial’ on how to apply E-CENT counselling in practice, drawn from my impressions of thousands of counselling sessions.  If I have to try to summarize ‘the process’, here is my best approximation to what the counsellor is trying to do:

  1. Build a relationship with the client, while trying to find out what they want and need.
  2. Get an outline of the client’s story – the ‘confession stage’ (in the Jungian tradition) – about the client’s presenting problem.
  3. Help them to explore their story, and to refine it, so it becomes more accurate – more complete; or more digested; more known. For example, help them to check if their story has been subjected to any (or many?) deletions, distortions or over-generalizations.  Help them to explore their story of origins and their story of relationships (to begin with).
  4. Help them to see that their stories (including their emotions about events) could be edited (‘re-framed’)[i] so that they are less disturbing, less painful, and more tolerable than they originally seemed[ii].
  5. Teach the client that the quality of the story that they inhabit – or live inside of – is strongly and unavoidably affected by their diet[iii], physical exercise regime, sleep pattern, relaxation processes, relationship support (adequate or inadequate), physical and socioeconomic environment, and social connections (good and/or bad)[iv], etc.; as well as their inner-dialogue (or self-talk; mainly at non-conscious levels of mind).
  6. Teach the client:
  • To dedicate themselves to reality at all cost![v] (Even though it is hard for a human to know what is ‘real’, because we automatically interpret every event/object on the basis of our prior, cumulative, interpretive, cultural experience.)
  • To accept the things they cannot change, and only try to change the things they can. (Even though it is actually very difficult to find out what might be controllable!)
  • To live a moral life (on the basis that “You cannot live The Good Life unless you are willing to live A Good [Moral] Life!”). This involves growing their Good Wolf side (or virtuous side), and shrinking (starving) their Bad Wolf side (or the vicious, evil side of their character). See Appendix H of Byrne (2016).
  • To keep their expectations in line with reality. (Even though it is difficult to identify what is actually ‘real’!)
  • To understand their emotions, and also how to manage them. (See Chapter 7, above, on human emotion).
  • To grow their Adult ego state, and to shrink the inappropriate elements of their Controlling Parent, Critical Parent, and Adapted/Rebellious Child ego states[vi].
  • To restrain their tendencies towards passivity or aggression, and to mainly try to engage in assertive communication with others.
  • To love some significant individual(s) in their lives; and to offer love to one of those significant individuals, as a way to get love: meaning, to establish a couple relationship.
  • To take responsibility for their life. Nobody is coming on a white charger (or in shining armour) to rescue them.  If it’s to be, it’s up to them!
  • To commit themselves to personal and professional development; and, if they are up for it, some form of spiritual development; or community involvement; or political activity.

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Couples therapy and relationship counselling, coaching and psychotherapy in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire, HX7 8HJ

And all over the world via telephone, email and Skype

Updated on 5th June 2019 – Posted here on 3rd July 2019

Modified Couples Therapy Service

15th February 2019

To make an appointment to work with me, please:

Telephone 01422 843 629

Or email me at jim.byrne@abc-counselling.com

I have more than 20 years experience of helping couples to rebuild their loving relationship, or to take it apart in a civilized manner. 

End of extract.  For more, please click the following link: Couples therapy in Hebden Bridge. ***

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Lifestyle counselling for anger, anxiety and depression. Those problematic problems of overly-aroused emotions can be tackled by eating the right foods; avoiding six specific bad foods; and following our physical activity guidelines: ABC Bookstore Online.***

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Continued…

Validity of our approach to counselling

Most of the models and processes which went into forming the theoretical foundations of E-CENT counselling come from one or more of the ten systems of therapy which were evaluated by Smith and Glass (1977), and found to be not only effective, but fairly equally effective![vii] So I do not feel any need to waste resources funding a Randomized Control Trial to ‘prove’ the efficacy of E-CENT.  (West and Byrne, 2009[viii]). You cannot use research to ‘prove’ anything anyway: according to Karl Popper’s philosophy of science.

The main types of therapy ‘validated’ by Smith and Glass (1977, 1982)[ix], and also by later studies[x], and used in E-CENT counselling, are:

# Transactional Analysis;

# some small residue of (moderate) Rational emotive therapy;

# Psychodynamic approaches;

# Gestalt therapy;

# Client-centred counselling;

# and Systematic desensitization.

The main exceptions to this rule – that E-CENT has been constructed from validated systems of counselling and therapy (validated by the Common Factors School of research – Smith and Glass [1980]; Wampold and Messer [2001]; and others) – include the use of:

  1. Elements of Attachment theory(which is perhaps the most researched and validated approach to developmental psychology in use today). See Wallin(2007); and Bowlby (1988)[xi].
  2. Aspects of the most popular approaches to Moral philosophy (including The Golden Rule; Rule utilitarianism; Duty ethics; and Virtue ethics.)[xii]
  3. Moderate aspects of Buddhist philosophy, including elements of the Zen perspective on language; and some of the insights of the Dhammapada.[xiii] Plus moderate aspects of Stoic philosophy[xiv].
  4. The Narrative approach to counselling and therapy, which has become increasingly popular, mainly as a result of the work of White and Epston; and Kenneth Gergen; plus Theodore Sarbin[xv].
  5. And the paradigm shift “…from the primacy of behaviour, cognition, and content to the primacy of emotion, relationship, and context…” promoted by Allan Schore and others, is a new, but highly rated scientific re-evaluation of the nature of the human brain-mind and how it is shaped by social-emotional experience. (Rass, 2018; Siegel, 2016; Hill, 2015; Forgas, 2001).

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Narrative counselling can design new ways of seeing the client’s problem or process: “A key idea (in narrative counselling and therapy) is that some ways of talking can position the person, in relation to an issue or concern, in such a way that there can seem no possible movement forward.  A different way of talking, by contrast, can open up new possibilities for feeling and action…”

From: John McLeod, 2007, Counselling Skill, page 3. (84)

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Continued…

Imaginary ‘typical’ session structure

Most systems of counselling and therapy have a characteristic ‘session structure’ to which trainee counsellors are expected to conform, and this seems to carry on into full professional practice for many systems (including Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy)[xvi].

The publishing industry has tended to accentuate this requirement: that a system of therapy must have a beginning, a middle and an end phase, which are distinct and clearly specifiable, with common tasks for each phase. (See in particular the Sage Publications’ ‘Counselling in Action’ series).

However, as stated above, E-CENT counselling does not have a predetermined or predictable session structure. On the other hand, it may be necessary to imagine a ‘typical’ (though not invariable) structure, in order to teach some of the standard models and processes that we commonly use.

For example, in this chapter, it might help to explore the models and processes of E-CENT counselling by using the standard Jungian therapy session structure.  The Jungian approach has the following four stages: (1) Confession; (2) Elucidation; (3) Education; and (4) Transformation.

If we are to use this approach, then we must begin with the confession stage:

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Anger management counselling, coaching, psychotherapy in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire, HX7 8HJ

By Dr Jim Byrne

Updated on 7th March 2019 – Posted here on 3rd July 2019

This work will involve shrinking certain of your ‘ego states’, or ‘mind states’, and growing the most helpful ego-state, which is called your Adult.

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Email: Dr Jim Byrne***

Telephone: 01422 843 629

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E-CENT counselling teaches that life is difficult, but that you have to face up to the difficulty – to both experience it and reframe it – in order to make it ‘go away’:  “What makes life difficult is that the process of confronting and solving problems is a painful one.  Problems, depending upon their nature, evoke in us frustration or grief or sadness or loneliness or guilt or regret or anger, or fear or anxiety or anguish or despair.  These are uncomfortable feelings, often very uncomfortable, often as painful as any kind of physical pain, sometimes equalling the very worst kind of physical pain.  Indeed, it is because of the pain that events or conflicts engender in us that we call them problems.  And since life poses an endless series of problems, life is always difficult and is full of pain as well as joy”.

Scott Peck (1983/1990) The Road Less Travelled: The new psychology of love, traditional values and spiritual growth. Page 14. (104)

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Back to my tutorial on E-CENT counselling…

Confession

The main model that I want to emphasize in the ‘confession’ stage is our own version of the RCFP model, (or the Rapport>Contract>Focus>Process model), which is described below.

By using the concept of ‘confession’ we evoke memories of the Catholic confession box.  However, it is important to note that E-CENT has a secular approach to spirituality; and a link to moderate Buddhism and moderate Stoicism, rather than any brand of Christianity.

Confessions we do hear, but we do not begin our counselling and therapy work by asking the client to confess, or even to open up.  We actually begin with a very gentle process, based on our Rapport>Contract>Focus>Process (RCFP) model.

This model determines and structures how we meet and greet our clients, and how we work slowly towards a therapy focus; and thereafter we (spontaneously, intuitively) select additional models to guide the processing (P) of the client’s communications.

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The RCFP model:

R = Rapport.  Build rapport[xvii] (or attentive attunement) with the client as a basis for a strong therapeutic alliance. (This is increasingly seen as our role of providing a ‘secure base’, and a ‘safe harbour’, as defined in Attachment theory. [See Wallin, 2007, and Bowlby, 1988]). It also includes the core conditions of genuineness, empathy and non-possessive love (agape)/caring[xviii]).

C = Contract.  Find out what the client wants to work on, as a contractual undertaking. But bear in mind that this might be the first of more than one ‘presenting problem’, before the client feels secure enough to reveal the ‘real’ problem. (Sometimes this does seem as if the client has decided to ‘confess’, or ‘own up’ – or to arrive at some new stage of conscious awareness of some previously hidden aspect of their problem).

F = Focus.  Focus in on an area of work that will assist in the pursuit of the client’s goals, as implied by the contract (C).

P = Process.  Process the client’s communications and concerns about this ‘area of work’ through one (at a time) of the various models available; some of which are discussed below.

(This RCFP model was inspired by a similar model developed by Dr Ed Jacobs, in his system of Impact Therapy)[xix].

Some of the unsolicited client testimonials, which I often receive, testify to the importance of our emphasis on building rapport.

Here are two recent examples (in which the clients’ identities and locations have been concealed):

♣ “Hello Jim, I am so grateful to you for all the skilful help you’ve given me over the two years that I’ve been seeing you.  You have given me a new kind of life; new ways of relating; and an improved view of myself as a person in the world. Thank you so much.”

P.A.G., Crag Vale, Calderdale. (20+ sessions of face to face counselling for a range of attachment, relationship and self-esteem issues).

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♣ “Dear Jim, I want to express my gratitude for the help you gave me over the past few weeks.  I was in a bad way, lost, and not understood elsewhere – but you understood me, believed in me, and helped me to work out a better understanding of my condition.  You were right to focus on my diet and lack of physical fitness, rather than the psychiatric emphasis on my ‘brain chemicals’!  I am now back on my feet, and back in my university studying.  (In fact, I did a resit exam last week, and got a ‘grade A’ pass.)  Thank you for your excellent diagnostic and humanitarian skills.”

H.H.G., Bradford. (Six sessions of face to face counselling for unusual physical sensations and panic about personal identity difficulties).

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Defining and Describing Depression:

Some insights for depressed or grieving individuals

Copyright (c) 2017, Jim Byrne and Renata Taylor-Byrne. Posted here on 5th July 2019

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Depression is difficult to grapple with, and depression can be defeated!

Our emotive-cognitive theory of depression says we have to distinguish between transient grief and stuck depression.

…End of extract.  For more, please click the following link: Depression counselling in Hebden Bridge.***

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E-CENT counsellors teach their clients to be realistically optimistic about the achievement of their reasonable goals: “Optimism, like hope, means having a strong expectation that, in general, things will turn out all right in life, despite setbacks and frustrations.  From the standpoint of emotional intelligence, optimism is an attitude that buffers people against falling into apathy, hopelessness, or depression in the face of tough going.  And, as with hope, its near cousin, optimism pays dividends in life (providing, of course, it is realistic optimism; a too-naïve optimism can be disastrous)”.

Daniel Goleman (1996) Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ.  Page 88. (113)

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Continued…

Questioning strategies:

From the beginning of the counsellor’s relationship with each client, and especially as rapport is achieved, there is a need for effective, systematic questioning.  Effective, systematic questioning has a number of features:

In the opening encounters with a new client, I normally offer an invitation to speak, rather than a tightly focused question.  I am trying to establish a relationship, tentatively, carefully. I want to hear the client’s story, in their own words, and in their usual way of conversing.

I then explain that I want to arrive at a contract which will involve me in working on the client’s key issues.  Of course, I also know that they may begin with a ‘presenting problem’ which is not their main concern.  I may have to wait some time before they feel safe enough to present the real issue.

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In the confession stage, we are still mainly dealing with the client’s presenting problem, which may not go deep enough in terms of understanding what is really causing the client’s main difficulties in life.

When thwarted goals seems to be a significant part of the problem, I might use the WDEP model. From Dr William Glasser’s ‘Reality therapy’, this model asks:

W = What do you Want?

D = What are you Doing to get what you want?

E = How well is this going (the Evaluation stage)?  And:

P = Let’s re-Plan, or produce an explicit Plan linked to what you Want.

Out of this questioning process normally come some fragments of story, which may or may not fit well together, and with which we work to make sense of the client’s overall life narrative.

If there is a tension between what the client wants and what they are doing, we are immediately into the elucidation stage; helping the client to change either what they want, or what they are doing, so they both line up.

If there is no tension between what the client wants and what they are doing, I often switch to the Egan Model

The Egan model: This is a more detailed exploration of the client’s goals and resources for making progress. In its simplest form it includes asking the client the following three questions:

  1. Where are you now (in your inner and outer life)? Or what is the problem with which you are stuck?
  2. Where are you trying to get to? Or what would need to change for the problem to be resolved?
  3. What (new or revised) action could you take to get from 1 to 2? Or how could you begin to build a bridge towards your goal?

This process often gives us a ‘focus area’ to begin to work upon.  It also often reveals blind spots that they client has, which we can clarify; and we can often help them to identify resources for solving their problem, about which they were unaware.

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Anxiety counselling in Hebden Bridge:

Understanding and managing anxiety

Copyright (2017-2019) by Jim Byrne and Renata Taylor-Byrne. 

February 2017. Posted here on 5th July 2019

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Definition

The E-CENT theory of anxiety says that we are born with an innate sense of fear: (Darwin, 1872/1965; and Panksepp, 1998).  Babies begin to display a pronounced sense of fear from about the age of six or seven months.  This sense of fear is of something that is present – like loud noise; a furry animal; something that looks like a snake; etc.  In time, we learn to feel anxious, which is to say, fearful about things that are not present, but which we ‘think-feel’ (consciously and/or non-consciously) might represents threats and dangers just a little while in the future.  Many fears begin in childhood.  For example…

…End of extract. For more, please click the following link: Anxiety counselling in Hebden Bridge.***

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Counselling and therapy can only do so much to reduce the misery of emotional distress.  The government must do the rest.  Firstly, we now know that, in any developed nation, “…rates of emotional distress (including disturbances such as depression, anxiety and substance abuse) increase in direct proportion to the degree of income inequality…  Since Selfish Capitalism is the main cause of inequality in developed nations, this strongly suggests that Selfish Capitalism is not a good way to run things, if you care about people’s emotional well-being.  Second, rates are at least twice as high in English-speaking nations as in mainland Western Europe…  Since the former are far more Selfish Capitalist than the latter, this is further reason to avoid it if you do not want to have a screwed-up population”.

Oliver James (2007) Affluenza: How to be successful and stay sane.  Pages xviii-xix. (133)

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Tutorial Continued…

However, we should note that, in E-CENT counselling, we are not just interested in the so-called ‘thinking’ side of the client; or the so-called ‘feeling’ side of the client.  We are also interested in these questions:

How well do you sleep?  How many hours per night do you sleep?

Do you get up in time to have a slow and gentle start to the day, or do you begin late, with tight time deadlines, which push up your stress level?

What do you have for breakfast, and is it the healthiest option possible? (It is never a good idea to skip breakfast!)

How well do you manage your time and your stress, in your daily working life?

How good are your relationships with your significant others? At home and in work?

How much physical exercise do you do, and how many days per week do you do it?

How much water do you drink during the day? 

What do you eat for lunch? 

What snacks do you have mid-morning and mid-afternoon?

How much alcohol do you drink?

Do you consume any of these toxic foods: sugar; alcohol; caffeine; gluten; trans-fats (or hydrogenated fat, in junk foods); and highly-processed foods (with added sugar, salt, trans-fats, colours, flavours, and other denatured components)?

Tell me about your childhood?  Was it broadly happy?  Or not?  Are you secure or insecure in your relationships?

What is the problem that brought you here today?  And how does it relate to the questions I have asked above?

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During the confession stage, some clients have admitted to serious wrong-doing, such as being unfaithful to their partner, or stealing family assets.  At this point I switch from confession to education, and begin to teach the importance of pursuing a virtuous life, and avoiding vice, because of the inevitable outcome of ‘bad karma’[xx]. We tend to reap what we sow, and we cannot have a happy life if we live in an unprincipled manner.  (Of course, I also teach the importance of morality for the sake of being a moral agent – a good person; which is a social requirement).  And I teach that immorality also tends to undermine our sense of self-esteem.

Furthermore, I also teach the Golden Rule[xxi] – which requires us to treat other individuals at least as well as we would want them to treat us, if our roles were reversed – and I often recommend reading of the Dhammapada (which outlines basic Buddhist teachings)[xxii].

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Affect regulation theory

Developments in counselling and therapy theory:

From Freud to Schore!

By Dr Jim Byrne, January 2018

Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis was the first major manifestation of psychotherapy in the modern sense. It was quickly followed by behaviour therapy, which arose in the UK and Russia in roughly the same era as Freud’s innovation.

Freud emphasized the non-conscious urges of the new born baby, and how it related to its carers with sexual phantasies (in which ‘sexual’ actually meant ‘any manifestation which we would normally think of as love’).  Because Freud craved scientific respectability, he build his system on the back of biology and his experience of neurology.  But his limited perspective was this: Humans evolve sexually, from simple beginnings through puberty to full genital sexual potency.  But this is only one aspect of human biological and neurological development.  The more important ones include attachment urges, from about the age of two months (Schore, 1994, 2003), and the development of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which is the seat of the internalization of social modelling of emotion regulation. …

End of extract.  For more, please click this link: Affect Regulation Theory.***

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Re-parenting and befriending are important aspects of counselling and therapy:  “Ian Suttie … regarded psychotherapy as a quest for a ‘companionship’ with the client.  He drew attention to the embarrassed ‘taboo on tenderness’ which scares us all, especially ‘scientific’ psychotherapists.  There is no more effective barrier to treatment (in counselling and therapy).  Tenderness is akin to that of the loving relationship between the child and mother which is formed ‘with the intention of severance’.  The therapist needs to be a ‘mother’ (and a ‘father’), but s/he must move towards ‘friendship’, a more equal personal relationship”. 

Robert F. Hobson, Forms of Feeling: The heart of psychotherapy, Page 212. (134)

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…Main text continued…

Elucidation

There are a number of models that I use for the purpose of elucidating the client’s concerns, dilemmas, goals, etc.

Chief among them is our own holistic version of the Stimulus>Organism>Response (or Holistic-SOR) model.

The original SOR model (created by the neo-behaviourists) suggested that, when an animal (or human) notices a stimulus (S), it outputs a response (R), because of the way the organism (O) processes the stimulus.

Figure 8.1: The classic S>O>R model:

That original SOR model of neo-behaviourism was dumped by Dr Albert Ellis, the creator of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), and replaced by the simple ABC model, in which the client is assumed to be always and only upset because of their ‘irrational beliefs’.  (And Freud’s ‘ABCs’ were no better, in that he implied that when something happens [let’s call it an ‘A’, or activating event], the client responds with their own phantasy [let’s call it a ‘B’, or belief], which upsets them [at point C – consequence]: though Freud did not use that ‘ABC’ lettering system)

Aaron Tim Beck (despite being a medical doctor, and theoretically aware of the importance of the human body) also adopted this simple ABC model. (Beck 1976).

So one of the main contributions of E-CENT counselling has been ‘adding back the body’ to the client; and accepting that the client’s body-mind-environment-whole is implicated in all of their emotional and behavioural states.

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# Dr Jim Byrne’s Counselling and Psychotherapy Division

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# Renata Taylor-Byrne’s Coaching/Counselling Division

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# ABC Bookstore Online: Self-help books to heal your life and grow your mind.***

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Site Map

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Attachment theory and counselling

Some thoughts by D Jim Byrne

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Copyright © Jim Byrne, 2013-2019. Posted here on 10th July 2019.

Where does E-CENT* theory stand in relation to Attachment theory?

(a) Similarities: E-CENT accepts the basic thesis of Attachment theory, which claims (with considerable scientific support) that each individual begins its life with an urge to seek an ‘attachment figure’, normally mother, initially, and later, father.  And that they become securely attached if their carers relate to them in ways that they can experience as caring, sensitive, and supportive/ reassuring[1].  The apparent function of this innate urge is survival of the species.  New mothers are also assumed to be ‘wired up’ by both nature and culture, to seek to serve the new-born baby in ways that enhance the child’s survival.  These two urges can be seen in all forms of mammals.  …End of extract.  For more, please click the following link: Attachment theory and counselling.***

(*E-CENT is the acronym for Emotive-Cognitive Embodied Narrative Therapy – and this system of counselling and therapy was developed by me, out of a fusion of 13-15 pre-existing systems of counselling and therapy!)

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In E-CENT couples therapy, we provide a secure base for both partners, in order to promote secure attachment between them.  Why is this important?  According to Levine and Heller: “If we are unsure whether the person closest to us, our romantic partner, truly believes in us and supports us and will be there for us in times of need, we’ll find it much harder to maintain focus and engage in life.   …   When (research) participants felt that their goals were supported by their partner, they reported an increase in self-esteem and an elevated mood …  In (another) experiment, we saw that physical contact with a spouse can help reduce anxiety in a stressful situation. … Spending time in the presence of your partner…” (if you are in a satisfying marriage) “…actually benefits you by lowering your blood pressure to healthier levels”.  But your blood pressure will be raised “if …you are not satisfied by your marriage”. … “Not only is our emotional well-being sacrificed when we are in a romantic partnership with someone who doesn’t provide a secure base, but so is our physical health”.  “Our partners powerfully affect our ability to thrive in the world. …  Having a partner who fulfils our intrinsic attachment needs and feels comfortable acting as a secure base and safe haven can help us remain emotionally and physically healthier and live longer”.

Levine and Heller (2011) Attached. Identify your attachment style and find your perfect match. Pages 31-33.

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Counsellors and their clients

Good counsellors and psychotherapists devote their lives to caring for the minds of their clients – the lives of their clients. They wrestle with difficult situations, challenging goals, and with dysregulated emotions (like grief and loss, anger and panic, relationship conflict, and mental confusion).

Innovative counsellors are constantly looking for new ways to help their clients.  They mostly begin their careers with a single model of counselling, and many of them add in techniques and models and ideas from any source that seems likely to help their client.  After a few years of practice, their system of counselling is a hybrid of many different approaches.  Although they normally begin with a very simple model of counselling, and the nature of the counselling client, those perceptions change and evolves over the years.

For example: eighteen years ago, I would sit in my consulting room, waiting for a counselling client.  I had little to think about, because I already knew what their problem would be – the client’s ‘irrational beliefs’ – and my only challenge would be how to get the client to change to more ‘rational’ beliefs.

Today, eighteen years later, when I sit in my counselling room waiting for a new client, I sometimes run through a checklist in my head.  It goes something like this:

  1. I do not know who this client will turn out to be; or how complex their case might be; or how I should begin to think about them. I have to wipe my mind as clear as possible of preconceptions, which, of course, is an impossibility for a human being. (Our preconceptions reside at the non-conscious level, and we most often do not know what they are! And without our preconceptions we would be gaga! We would literally not know what anything was).
  2. This client will be a body-brain-mind, linked to a familial social environment (in the past) and a set of relationships (in the present).
  3. They will be subject to a range of stressors in their daily life, and those stressors will be managed by a set of coping strategies (good and bad – resulting from the degree to which their emotions are habitually regulated or dysregulated).
  4. This client will have been on a long journey through space-time, sometimes learning something new, and often repeating the habitual patterns of their past experience/conditioning. They will be aware of some of their emotional pain, and unaware of much of it.
  5. This client will have some kind of problem, or problems, for which I have been identified as an aid to the solution.
  6. This client will come in and tell me a story; and another story; and another; and will want me to make sense of those stories; so they can escape from some pain or other. And that is part of my job. But a more immediate, and important part may be to be a ‘secure base’for them[i] – to re-parent them.
  7. This client may or may not be aware that their body and mind are one: a body-mind. They may not realize that, to have a calm and happy mind, they need to eat a healthy, balanced diet; exercise regularly; manage their sleep cycle; drink enough water; process their daily experiences consciously (and especially the difficult bits [preferably in writing, in a journal]); have a good balance of work, rest and play; be assertive in their communications with their significant others; and so on.
  8. This client may have heard of ‘the talking cure’, and believe that all we have to do is exchange some statements, and then I will say ‘Take up thy bed and walk!’ And they will be healed.

They may not know that the solution to their problems is most likely going to involve them taking more responsibility for the state of their life; being more self-disciplined; learning to manage the ‘shadow side’ of their mind (or ‘bad wolf’ state); learning to manage their own emotions; manage their own relationships better; manage their physical health, in terms of diet, exercise, sleep, relaxation, stress, and so on; and to manage their minds also.

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About the only things I do know for sure, in advance, are as follows:

  1. This client will be a largely non-consciouscreature of habit, wired up in early childhood to be secure or insecure in their relationships;
  2. It will take some time to reach some kind of agreement about the nature of their main problems; and:
  3. Our communications will be relatively difficult, because all human communication is very difficult. This is so because they will have to interpret what I say and do in the light of their previous experiences, and I will have to interpret what they say and do in the light of my previous experiences. So the grounds for misunderstanding are vast!
  4. A lot of what will be communicated between us will go directly from my right brain to their right brain, non-verbally.
  5. They will know how I feel about them long before they know any of my ideas.
  6. I will have to have my wits about me, like Hercule Poirot, sailing through a dark night, on a choppy river, watching for shadows in the bushes on either bank! But I love the challenge. And now that I have developed E-CENT counselling, I have a broad range of models and theories and strategies in my toolbox to help me on my journey through the therapeutic relationship with any client who consults me in the future.

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If I reflect upon some of my clients from recent years, and how I worked with them, I might conclude that:

  1. Their problems ranged from couple conflict, anger management and anxiety/panic, and an anxious-clinging attachment style, on the one hand, to grief and depression, guilt and shame, lack of self-confidence, and an avoidant attachment style on the other. In other words, some of them were troubled by hyper-aroused emotions, and others were troubled by low or hypo-arousal. (I have more to say on this subject in section 2.6 below, where I present a more extensive list).
  2. Although they were (and are) primarily emotional beings – (as am I) – nevertheless we had to communicate with each other through our socialized, largely language-based communication interface habits. (This, of course, includes a good deal of paralinguistic signals [or body language], and emotional leakages [or ‘tells’], which are beyond our control!)
  3. My main modus operandum consisted of: (a) Providing the client with a secure base; (b) Exploring their current life situation, including their lifestyle habits; and (c) Attempting to teach them those models and theories and techniques which I have used in the past (and those I use today) to keep my emotional arousal in the middle ground between too high and too low. (For more on the tasks undertaken in E-CENT counselling, please see section 2.6 below).
  4. In the process, they mainly seemed to become more adult – without losing sight of the value of their Nurturing Parent and playful Child parts (or ego states). They learned to perceive-feel-think in a less extreme mode, and to keep their affects (or emotions/feelings/actions) on an even keel.

1.2 What is E-CENT counselling?

E-CENT counselling is one of the newest, most comprehensive systems of holistic counselling.  But this is something of a paradox, because, as John McLeod writes: “There are no new therapies.” (From page ix of McLeod 1997/2006). Of course, what he means here is that most new systems of counselling are a result of experiencing and knowing about older systems of counselling, which coalesce and mingle and transform and evolve over time.

For example, E-CENT theory has some of its roots in the teachings of the Buddha, and the moderate teaching of the Stoic philosophers; though I also have criticisms of both of these schools of thought.

I have reviewed models of mind from Plato and Freud, and John Bowlby and the post-Freudian ‘object relations’ tradition[ii].

And I have incorporated many ideas from the very latest thinking in affective neuroscience and interpersonal neurobiology.  I stand on the shoulders of giants!

Furthermore, as argued by Hill (2015), in describing other innovations, I am participating in the development of “major advances in psychotherapy”, via the “integration of disciplines”. (Page 98).  It should be stated quite clearly, however, that I am critical of as many aspects of those disciplines as those I favour!  I am wary of taking anything on board too readily, without adequate testing and critical analysis.  And I encourage you to do the same with the content of this book!

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E-CENT counselling theory is about the whole individual client – the body-brain-mind-environment – and not just the mind of the client.  It involves integrating the body-mind of the social-individual with their social environment.

It arose out the integration of various pre-existing theories and models of counselling and therapy – including the rational-emotive; cognitive-behavioural; emotive/ psychodynamic; and person-centred approaches. Plus attachment theory; and moral philosophy; narrative analysis; and some moderate Buddhist and Stoic ideas.  Our ultimate aim was to integrate – as potentially equal contributors to personal happiness and mental tranquillity – the following elements:

(a) The body, (diet and exercise [plus relaxation and meditation]);

(b) The brain, (brain food, blood sugar, and brain/mind development);

(c) The environment, (relationships, right livelihood, living conditions);

(d) Personal narratives, (or stories, scripts, frames, beliefs, attitudes, values, which were learned from family and society); and:

(e) A sense of “something bigger than the self”, (a spiritual practice, or a community involvement).

1.3 Our unique perspective

E-CENT counselling has a full title which benefits from being broken down into its constituent elements, for ease of presentation!

The ‘E’ stands for Emotive.  I believe that humans are primarily feeling beings, with an innate set of emotional control systems, which are subject to development over time, in the context of social modelling and social shaping. (Panksepp 1998; and Siegel 2015).

The ‘E-C’ juxtaposition was necessitated because of ‘the cognitive turn’, which began back in the 1950’s, when psychology researchers began to lose faith in the models of behaviourism.  When it became obvious, for example, that experimental animals had their own ‘goals and agendas’, separate and apart from the behavioural shaping conducted by the observing researchers, then those disillusioned neo-behaviourists concluded: “Ah, there must be something going on inside of those animals: like thinking!”  And thus the cognitive turn occurred.  Now we were all thought to be ‘cognitive beings’, where cognition was thought to be dominated by thinking.  Some of the major researchers (from the 1930’s and ‘40’s) who laid the foundations for this field – like Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky – overlooked human emotion.  They also did not notice that our so-called cognitive processes, of attention, perception, memory, etc., are (apparently) strongly guided by emotional control systems. (Panksepp 1998; Siegel 2015; and Hill 2015[iii] ).

I have come up with the E-C (Emotive-Cognitive) formulation to emphasize that we are primarily emotional, feeling beings, who also have a (limited) capacity to engage in relatively cool reasoning processes – but that those reasoning processes seem to depend upon our ability to form emotional evaluations of our choices and options (Damasio, 1994)[iv].  Indeed, I dislike speaking or writing about ‘thinking’; preferring to use the term ‘perfinking’, to indicate that we perceive, feel and think (or perfink) all in one grasp of the mind.[v]  Those apparently separate processes (like ‘thinking’) cannot ever be clearly and wholly separated out from each other (though we can perhaps distinguish between them for certain theoretical considerations).

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So much for the ‘E-C’ element of our acronym.  Now for the ‘E-N’ element:

The E-N element stands for Embodied-Narrative.  Again, this is an attempt to get away from some unhelpful ideas from the past: this time some ideas that have become prevalent in Rational and Cognitive therapies (REBT/CBT), to the effect that we have automatic thoughts, or beliefs, which are completely disconnected from the state of our bodiesThis is not true.  The REBT/CBT approaches lead therapists and counsellors to relate to their clients as ‘floating heads’, which they are not.

For examples: An inebriated body will produce different thoughts and beliefs and narratives than a sober body.

A hungry body (with exception-ally low blood sugar levels) will produce different (and more negative) thoughts and beliefs and narratives than a well fed body (given a balanced diet at regular intervals throughout the day).

A well exercised body will produce different (more positive, constructive) thoughts and beliefs than a ‘couch potato’ body, all other things being equal.

An excessively stressed body will produce different thoughts and beliefs than a suitably relaxed body. And so on.

Hence the importance of the concept of Embodied-Narratives.

So, our system of Emotive-Cognitive Embodied-Narrative Therapy (E-CENT) exists because of some of the most obvious errors in the therapies which preceded us.

1.4 The status of E-CENT theory

Most of the models and processes which went into forming the theoretical foundations of E-CENT counselling come from one or more of the ten systems of therapy which were evaluated by Smith and Glass (1977), and found to be not only effective, but fairly equally effective![vi] So I do not feel any need to waste resources funding a Randomized Control Trial to ‘prove’ the efficacy of E-CENT.  (West and Byrne, 2009[vii]).

The main types of therapy validated by Smith and Glass (1977, 1982)[viii], and also by later studies[ix], and used in E-CENT counselling, are: Transactional analysis; Rational emotive therapy; Psychodynamic approaches; Gestalt therapy; Client-centred; and Systematic desensitization.

The main exceptions to this rule – that E-CENT has been constructed from validated systems of counselling and therapy (validated by the Common Factors School of research – Smith and Glass [1980]; Wampold and Messer [2001]; and others) – include the use of:

  1. Elements of Attachment theory(which is perhaps the most researched and validated approach to developmental psychology in use today) – See: Wallin(2007); and Bowlby (1988)[x].
  2. Aspects of the most popular approaches to Moral philosophy (including The Golden Rule; Rule utilitarianism; Duty ethics; and Virtue ethics.)[xi]
  3. Aspects of Buddhist philosophy, including elements of the Zen perspective on language; and some of the insights of the Dhammapada.[xii]
  4. The Narrative approach to counselling and therapy, which has become increasingly popular, mainly as a result of the work of White and Epston; and Kenneth Gergen; plus Theodore Sarbin[xiii]
  5. And some moderate elements of Stoicism, especially those parts that overlap moderate Buddhism.

1.5 An accidental evolution of theory

I did not go seeking to invalidate any particular theory, but rather to validate REBT (and I had no reservations about Zen Buddhism or Stoicism – which I do now!)  In practice, however, as I worked at trying to validate the ABC model of REBT[xiv], (between 2001 and 2007/8), our reflective learning increasingly drew attention to flaws and weaknesses in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy theory and models.

In one of my papers on REBT – (Byrne 2009a) – I was trying to validate the ABC model by comparing and contrasting it with:

(1) Elements of Freud’s theory of the tripartite psyche (or mind): (Comprising the It [or organism]; the Ego [or socialized personality] and the Super-ego [or internalized mother-father-other]);

(2) Aspects of Transactional Analysis (TA) theory – including how the so-called Parent, Adult and Child ‘ego states’ could be accommodated within the ABC model;

(3) The Object Relations emphasis on the relationship of mother and baby; and:

(4) Some cognitive science (including Hofstadter 2007, Le Doux 1996, and Damasio 1994 and 2000); some Zen koans; and some general theory of emotions from mainstream psychology.

In practice, REBT fell apart in our hands, and E-CENT emerged from the debris.

In 2009, six years before Daniel Siegel produced his book on Interpersonal Neurobiology (IPNB), I had constructed a model of the ‘social individual’ who grows out of the interaction of mother-and-baby in the context of socialization and education (or induction into a culture – Byrne 2009b).  In this, I had been influenced by Douglas Hofstadter’s neuroscience view of the human mind[xv].

1.6 Views of science

I am not claiming that “E-CENT is right, and everybody else is wrong!”  This would contradict the Common Factors theory that all systems of counselling and therapy that are designed to be therapeutic produce broadly equivalent outcomes for clients (on average).

I take the view that all science is tentative and propositional.  (Of course, a few sciences [when closely related to technology, or to other physical referents that are easy to explore] prove to be more verifiable.  But psychological sciences tend to be harder to verify; and verifications are often overturned with time.  Indeed, the very idea of ‘verification’ in the human sciences is problematical.  The positivistic approach is to apply the model of the hard (technological and physical) sciences to the world of psychology and therapy.  But a more sustainable approach is to see the theories of psychology and psychotherapy as social constructions, in a world of social constructions about a ‘concrete reality’ – the human brain-mind – which is difficult to explore.

E-CENT theory is such a social construction, which should be continually tested in practice, and modified in the light of experience.  Like all human science products, E-CENT theory was produced by “blokes and birds (or guys and gals) trying to make sense of stuff”.

I have used the best theories, models and evidences available to us in the most relevant literature.  I have tried to avoid turning our theories into ‘facts’ – which is very hard for humans to do.  We humans believe so strongly in our ideas that we tend to project them out into the world and ‘find them’ there.  For example, Panksepp (1998) has said that what cognitive scientists think of as the cognitive functions of attention, perception, etc., are thought to be controlled by our emotional control systems.

However, in practice, I may sometimes seem to be firming that up into an incontrovertible fact.  But in terms of my intentions, I intend to say: It seems to me (based on my literature reviews, and my own ‘clinical’ experiences) that we humans are primarily emotional beings, for the whole of our lives.  It seems, from work conducted by Antonio Damasio, Jaak Panksepp, Allan Schore, Daniel Siegel, and others, that our thinking depends upon our feelings.  And it seems to us that this should reverse the cognitive revolution, and usher in an era of emotional revolution in counselling and psychotherapy.

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Footnotes to Part 1

[i] See Chapter 3 – ‘Shaping our narratives’ – in Wilson, T.D. (2011) Redirect: The Surprising New Science of Psychological Change. London: Allen Lane/Penguin.

[ii] See Appendix G of Byrne (2016).

[iii] See this blog post: Your Emotions Are What You Eat: How Your Diet Can Reduce Anxiety, by Matthew C. Nisbet, Available here: http://bigthink.com/age-of-engagement/your-emotions-are-what-you-eat-how-your-diet-can-reduce-anxiety

[iv] Siegel, D.J. (2015) The Developing Mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are.  London: The Guilford Press.

[v] Peck, M.S. (1998) The Road Less Travelled: A New Psychology of Love, Traditional Values and Spiritual Growth.  New York: Touchstone.

[vi] See our web page – ‘What is Transactional Analysis (TA)?’ – here: https://abc-counselling.org/transactional-analysis/

[vii] See my page on ‘REBT and Research’, Available here: web.archive.org/web/*/http://abc-counselling.com/id113.html

[viii] West, W., and Byrne, J., (2009) ‘Some ethical concerns about counselling research’: Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22(3) 309-318.

[ix] Smith, M.L. and Glass, G.V. (1977) Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcomes studies.  American Psychologists, 32, 752-760.

Smith, M., Glass, G. and Miller, T. (1980) The Benefits of Psychotherapy. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[x] Wampold, B.E. (2001) The Great Psychotherapy Debate: Model, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wampold, B.E., Ahn, H., and Coleman, H.K.L. (2001) Medical model as metaphor: Old habits die hard.  Journal of Counselling Psychology, 48, 268-273.

[xi] Bowlby, J. (1988/2005) A Secure Base. London: Routledge Classics.

[xii] Beauchamp, T.L. and Childress, J.F. (1994) Principles of Biomedical Ethics.  Fourth edition.  New York.  Oxford University Press.  And:

Bond, T. (2000) Standards and Ethics for Counselling in Action. Second edition. London: Sage.

[xiii] Watts, A. (1962/1990) The Way of Zen. London: Arkana/Penguin. And:

The Dhammapada (1973/2015) Taken from Juan Mascaró’s translation and edition, first published in 1973. London: Penguin Books (Little Black Classics No.80)

[xiv] Epictetus (1991) The Enchiridion. New York: Prometheus Books. And:

Aurelius, M. (1946/1992) Meditations. Trans. A.S.L. Farquharson.  London: Everyman’s Library.

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[xv] Wilson (2011); and:

Sarbin, T. R. (1989). Emotions as narrative emplotments. In M. J. Packer & R. B. Addison (eds.) Entering the circle: Hermeneutic investigations in psychology (pp. 185-201). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.  And:

Sarbin, T. R. (2001). Embodiment and the narrative structure of emotional life. Narrative Inquiry, 11, 217-225.

Gergen, K. (1985) The social constructionist movement in modern psychology.  American Psychologist, 40: 266-275.  And:

Gergen, K. J. (1994). Toward Transformation in Social Knowledge. London: Sage Publications. And:

Gergen, K. (2004) When relationships generate realities: therapeutic communication reconsidered.  Unpublished manuscripts.  Available online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Soc.Sci/kgergen1/printer-friendly.phtml?id-manu6.  Downloaded: 8th December 2004. And:

Gergen, K.J. and Gergen, M.M. (1986) Narrative form and the construction of psychological science.  In T.R. Sarbin (ed), Narrative Psychology: the storied nature of human conduct.  New York: Praeger.  And:

Chapter 4 – ‘What’s the story’ – in Philippa Perry (2012) How to Stay Sane. London: Macmillan.

[xvi] In the Master Therapist Series of video tapes produced by the Albert Ellis Institute, each of the ‘master therapists’ used the A-B-C-D-E model as the invariable structure of their sessions.

[xvii] Definition of rapport = “A close and harmonious relationship, in which the counsellor and client understand each other’s words, attitudes, feelings or ideas, and communicate well with each other”.

[xviii] Nelson-Jones, R. (2001) Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy.  Third edition.  London: Continuum.

[xix] Jacobs. E.E. (1993) Impact Therapy. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

[xx] We use a secular definition of ‘karma’ as meaning the results of all of our actions in the real world of this (the only) life we have lived so far (or the only life we can know about!) This combines both earned merit/demerit, plus accidents of being in the right or wrong place at a particular point in time. “Your karma is what happens to you.  You don’t have to be very wise about that!” Werner Erhard.

[xxi] The Golden Rule, which goes back to ancient China, and is preserved in both Catholic dogma and in the thinking of Immanuel Kant, goes like this: Do not do unto others what you would not want them to do to you in similar circumstances.  Or: Treat other people in ways that you would like to be treated.

[xxii] The Dhammapada (1973/2015) Taken from Juan Mascaró’s translation and edition, first published in 1973. London: Penguin Books (Little Black Classics No.80)

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Footnotes to Part 2

[i] In attachment theory, a child is seen to use his/her mother (or main carer) as a secure base from which to explore its environment, and to play.  If the child’s stress level rises, or s/he becomes anxious, s/he can scurry back to mother for a feeling of being in a sensitive and responsive relationship of care and reassurance.  This reassurance can also be sought and given nonverbally from a distance.  And in counselling and therapy, that role of being sensitive and caring, and reassuring the client, is also seen as providing a new form of secure base from which the client can explore difficult and challenging memories and feelings.

[ii] The British ‘Object relations’ tradition was a breakaway from the psychoanalytic theory of Melanie Klein, which emphasized interpersonal relations, primarily in the family and especially between mother (the ‘object’) and child (the ‘subject’).  In Object Relations theory, ‘object’ actually means a person, or part of a person, which is internalized by the subject (normally a baby or child).  The concept of ‘relations’ refers to interpersonal relations, and suggests the residue of past relationships that affect a person in the present. The internalization of ‘objects’ results in the formation of an Inner Working Model of relationship.

[iii] Hill, D. (2015) Affect Regulation Theory: A clinical model.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.

[iv] Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ Error: emotion, reason and the human brain. London, Picador.

[v] Glasersfeld, E. von (1989) Learning as a constructive activity. In Murphy, P. and Moon, B. (eds) Developments in Learning and Assessment.  London: Hodder and Stoughton.

[vi] See my page on ‘REBT and Research’, Available here: web.archive.org/web/*/http://abc-counselling.com/id113.html

[vii] West, W., and Byrne, J., (2009) ‘Some ethical concerns about counselling research’: Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 22(3) 309-318.

[viii] Smith, M.L. and Glass, G.V. (1977) Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcomes studies.  American Psychologists, 32, 752-760.

Smith, M., Glass, G. and Miller, T. (1980) The Benefits of Psychotherapy. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[ix] Wampold, B.E. (2001) The Great Psychotherapy Debate: Model, methods, and findings. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Wampold, B.E., Ahn, H., and Coleman, H.K.L. (2001) Medical model as metaphor: Old habits die hard.  Journal of Counselling Psychology, 48, 268-273.

[x] Bowlby, J. (1988/2005) A Secure Base. London: Routledge Classics.

[xi] Beauchamp, T.L. and Childress, J.F. (1994) Principles of Biomedical Ethics.  Fourth edition.  New York.  Oxford University Press.  And:

Bond, T. (2000) Standards and Ethics for Counselling in Action. Second edition. London: Sage.

[xii] Watts, A. (1962/1990) The Way of Zen. London: Arkana/Penguin. And:

The Dhammapada (1973/2015) Taken from Juan Mascaró’s translation and edition, first published in 1973. London: Penguin Books (Little Black Classics No.80)

[xiii] Wilson (2011); and:

Sarbin, T. R. (1989). Emotions as narrative emplotments. In M. J. Packer & R. B. Addison (eds.) Entering the circle: Hermeneutic investigations in psychology (pp. 185-201). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.  And:

Sarbin, T. R. (2001). Embodiment and the narrative structure of emotional life. Narrative Inquiry, 11, 217-225.

Gergen, K. (1985) The social constructionist movement in modern psychology.  American Psychologist, 40: 266-275.  And:

Gergen, K. J. (1994). Toward Transformation in Social Knowledge. London: Sage Publications. And:

Gergen, K. (2004) When relationships generate realities: therapeutic communication reconsidered.  Unpublished manuscripts.  Available online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/Soc.Sci/kgergen1/printer-friendly.phtml?id-manu6.  Downloaded: 8th December 2004. And:

Gergen, K.J. and Gergen, M.M. (1986) Narrative form and the construction of psychological science.  In T.R. Sarbin (ed), Narrative Psychology: the storied nature of human conduct.  New York: Praeger.  And:

Chapter 4 – ‘What’s the story’ – in Philippa Perry (2012) How to Stay Sane. London: Macmillan.

~~~

[xiv] The ABC model of REBT states that the adversities (or ’A’s) which happen to us are responded to by our beliefs (or ‘B’s) which gives rise to our Consequent emotions (or ‘C’s).  This model ignores two major factors: (1) That we are creatures of habit, and thus we respond to adversities on the basis of how we responded to those same adversities in the past; which also tends to be how we were trained by our social environment to respond to such adversities. And (2) that in addition to our beliefs, we are also influenced by our blood sugar level; our gut flora health or lack of heath; our general level of stress; and how fit our bodies are.  It is not all about beliefs.

[xv] Hofstadter, D. (2007) I am a Strange Loop.  New York: Basic Books.

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Footer information

If searching for us on Bing Maps, or Google Maps, then please search for 27 Keighley Road, Hebden Bridge, HX7 8HJ, UK.

The reason for the current confusion is that most mapping systems have mismanaged the mapping of this area! (To be fair, it’s not an easy area to map!)

Here is our location on Bing Maps: https://binged.it/2JAQEHv

If you want to write to us, then please use our official address, as used by the Post Office: 27 Wood End, Keighley Road, Hebden Bridge, HX7 8HJ, West Yorkshire, UK.

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For further information, please:

Telephone: 01422 843 629 (UK): 44 1422 843 629 (from outside the UK)

Or email us: Jim Byrne

or

Renata Taylor-Byrne

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A1, Jim and Nata counselling homepage

We follow a set of ethical codes which are described on our personal pages.  We help adults only, aged above 18 years, and preferably above 21 years of age.  We do not do any work with children.

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Link to free self development resources: Self Improvement from SelfGrowth.com

Link to Alexa Internet Inc.: https://www.alexa.com 

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You can find us on Bing Maps, at this location: https://binged.it/2DkGJFw

Or on Google Maps, at this location: 27 Keighley Road, HX7 8HJ

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We also sell books, on our dedicated website at ABC Bookstore Online.***

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